Reference values for echocardiography

Normal values for aorta in 2D echocardiography

 Normal intervalNormal interval, adjusted
Aortic annulus20-31 mm12-14 mm/m2
Sinus valsalva29-45 mm15-20 mm/m2
Sinotubular junction22-36 mm13-17 mm/m2
Ascending aorta22-36 mm13-17 mm/m2
Aortic arch22-36 mm 
Descending aorta20-30 mm 

​Adjustment refers to adjusting for body surface area (BSA).

BSA: m2

Män

Sinus valsalva

Min: mm

Max: mm

Aorta ascendens

Min: mm

Max: mm


Kvinnor

Sinus valsalva

Min: mm

Max: mm

Aorta ascendens

Min: mm

Max: mm


Min och max anger 95% konfidensintervall.
Min= 5:e percentil.
Max = 95:e percentil.

Data baserad på linjär regressionsmodell av Biaggi et al (Gender, age, and body surface area are the major determinants of ascending aorta dimensions in subjects with apparently normal echocardiograms, J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009 Jun;22(6):720-5).

Standardized values for aorta (mean ± SD)

 Aortic annulusSinus valsalva
AgeWomenMenWomenMen
<3011.4 ± 1.111.4 ± 1.215.5 ± 1.515.3 ± 1.8
30–3911.7 ± 1.011.4 ± 1.116.5 ± 1.615.7 ± 1.3*
40–4911.7 ± 1.011.5 ± 0.916.8 ± 1.416.6 ± 1.5
50–5912.0 ± 0.911.5 ± 0.917.9 ± 1.616.8 ± 1.7*
60–6911.7 ± 1.112.1 ± 1.017.5 ± 1.717.8 ± 1.6
>7011.6 ± 1.112.0 ± 1.018.2 ± 1.918.1 ± 1.7
All11.7 ± 1.011.6 ± 1.017.0 ± 1.916.6 ± 1.8
 Sinotubular junctionAscending aorta
AgeWomenMenWomenMen
<3013.5 ± 1.412.7 ± 2.315.1 ± 1.614.3 ± 1.6*
30–3914.3 ± 1.513.3 ± 1.316.4 ± 1.814.5 ± 1.4*
40–4914.6 ± 1.214.1 ± 1.5*16.4 ± 1.415.5 ± 1.5*
50–5915.7 ± 1.314.1 ± 1.518.0 ± 1.416.2 ± 1.6*
60–6914.7 ± 1.615.1 ± 1.6*17.6 ± 1.717.3 ± 1.7
>7015.5 ± 2.014.7 ± 1.618.2 ± 3.317.5 ± 1.4
All14.7 ± 1.713.9 ± 1.816.9 ± 2.315.7 ± 1.8
 Aortic arch
AgeWomenMen
<3010.7 ± 1.010.1 ± 1.3*
30–3911.6 ± 1.610.8 ± 1.3*
40–4911.5 ± 1.211.3 ± 1.3
50–5912.7 ± 1.111.3 ± 1.2*
60–6912.5 ± 1.412.0 ± 1.1
>7012.7 ± 1.212.2 ± 1.3
All11.9 ± 1.511.2 ± 1.4

Aortic valve regurgitation, normal values

Primary parameters

 Mild regurgitationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Vena contracta (cm)< 0,30,3-0,6> 0,6
PHT (pressure half time) – CW doppler> 500200-500< 200
Diastolic flow reversal – PW doppler aorta descendensif present, early diastolicearly diastolicholodiastolic

Quantification of jet

 Mild regurgitationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Jet-width / LVOT-width< 0,250,25-0,64> 0,64
Jet-area / LVOT-area< 0,050,05-0,59> 0,59

Qualitative parameters

 Mild regurgitationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Jet areasmallvariablelarge if central, variable if excentric
Coaptation defectmildmoderatesevere
CW-profile aortic regurgitationweakvariabledense
Size left atriumnormalnormal or enlargedenlarged
Size left ventriclenormalnormal or enlargedenlarged

Additional PISA-parameters

 Mild regurgitationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
EROA (cm²)< 0,100,10-0,29> 0,29
Regurgitation volume (ml/beat)< 3030-59> 59
Regurgitation fraction (%)< 3030-49> 49

EROA = (CSA*v)/v(maxMR) {{ Flödeshastighet = CSA*v = 6.28*r2*v(aliasing)

References

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3.

2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007.

Aortic valve stenosis

Disease defining parameters

 Mild stenosisModerate stenosisSevere stenosis
Valve area (cm²)> 1,51,0-1,5< 1,0
Normalized valve area (cm²/m²)>0,850,6-0,85< 0,6

Measured parameters

 Aortic sclerosisMild stenosisModerate stenosisSevere stenosis
Mean gradient (mmHg) < 2020-40> 40
Peak velocity (m/s)1,8-2,52,6-2,93,0-4,0> 4,0
Peak gradient (mmHg) < 3535-65> 65
Velocity ratio (LVOT / aotric valve) > 0,50,5-0,25< 0,25

References

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029.

2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303.

3. Vahanian, Alec; Alfieri, Ottavio; Andreotti, Felicita; Antunes, Manuel J.; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Baumgartner, Helmut et al. (2012): Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012). In European heart journal 33 (19), pp. 2451–2496. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs109.

4. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Edvardsen, Thor; Goldstein, Steven et al. (2017): Recommendations on the Echocardiographic Assessment of Aortic Valve Stenosis. A Focused Update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 372–392. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.02.009.

Visual assessment of regional wall motion (left ventricle)

TYPE OF MOTIONDEFINITIONWALL MOTION SCORE
NormalNormal thickening (typically >30% thickening from end-diastole to end-systole).1
HypokinesiaReduced thickening (typically 10–30% thickening from end-diastole to end-systole)2
AkinesiaMarkedly reduced, or no thickening (<10%)3
DyskinesiaParadoxical thinning and/or outward directed motion during systole4
AneurysmaticDiastolic deformation5

Recommended by American Society for Echocardiography (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 18:1440-1463, 2005).

Reference values for left ventricular mass and geometry

 Women   Men   
 ReferenceMildy abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormalReferenceMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
LINEAR METHOD        
LV mass, g67–162163–186187–210>21188–224225–258259–292>293
LV mass/BSA, g/m243–9596–108109–121> 12249–115116–131132–148> 149
LV mass/height, g/m41–99100–115116–128>12952–126127–144145–162>163
LV mass/height 2,7 , g/m2,718–4445–5152–58>5920–4849–5556–63>64
Relative wall thickness, cm0.22–0.420.43–0.470.48–0.52>0.530.24–0.420.43–0.460.47–0.51>0.52
Septal thickness, cm0.6–0.91.0–1.21.3–1.5> 1.60.6–1.01.1–1.31.4–1.6> 1.7
Posterior wall thickness, cm0.6–0.91.0–1.21.3–1.5> 1.60.6–1.01.1–1.31.4–1.6> 1.7
2D METOD        
LV mass, g66–150151–171172–182> 19396–200201–227228–254> 255
LV mass/BSA, g/m244–8889–100101–112> 11350–102103–116117–130> 131

BSA, Body surface area; LV, left ventricular; 2D, 2-dimensional.

Referensvärden för vänster kammares storlek

 Women   Men   
 Normal rangeMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormalNormal rangeMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
LV DIMENSIONS        
LV diastolic diameter3.9–5.35.4–5.75.8–6.1>6.24.2–5.96.0–6.36.4–6.8>6.9
LV diastolic diameter/BSA, cm/m 22.4–3.23.3–3.43.5–3.7>3.82.2–3.13.2–3.43.5–3.6>3.7
LV diastolic diameter/height, cm/m2.5–3.23.3–3.43.5–3.6>3.72.4–3.33.4–3.53.6–3.7>3.8
LV VOLUME        
LV diastolic volume, mL56–104105–117118–130>13167–155156–178179–201>201
LV diastolic volume/BSA, mL/m 235–7576–8687–96> 9735–7576–8687–96> 97
LV systolic volume, mL19–4950–5960–69>7022–5859–7071–82>83
LV systolic volume/BSA, mL/m 212–3031–3637–42> 4312–3031–3637–42> 43

BSA, body surface area; LV, left ventricular.

Reference values for left ventricular function (ejection fraction)

 Women   Men   
 NormalMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormalNormalMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
LINEAR METHOD        
Endocardial fractional shortening, %27–4522–2617–21<1625–4320–2415–19<14
Midwall fractional shortening, %15–2313–1411–12<1014–2212–1310–11<10
2D METOD        
Ejection fraction, %>5545–5430–44<30>5545–5430–44<30

2D, Two-dimensional.

Classification of ejection fraction

 NormalMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
Ejection fraction (%), biplan, males52-7241-5130-40<30
Ejection fraction (%), biplan, females54-7441-5330-40<30

References

1. Lang, Roberto M.; Badano, Luigi P.; Mor-Avi, Victor; Afilalo, Jonathan; Armstrong, Anderson; Ernande, Laura et al. (2015): Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. In European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging 16 (3), pp. 233–270. DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jev014.

2. Lang, Roberto M.; Bierig, Michelle; Devereux, Richard B.; Flachskampf, Frank A.; Foster, Elyse; Pellikka, Patricia A. et al. (2005): Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 18 (12), pp. 1440–1463. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.005. –>Pubmed-Link

 Normal intervalMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
RV DIMENSIONS    
Basal RV diameter (RVD 1), cm2.0–2.82.9–3.33.4–3.8>3.9
Mid RV diameter (RVD 2), cm2.7–3.33.4–3.73.8–4.1>4.2
Base-to-apex length (RVD 3), cm7.1–7.98.0–8.58.6–9.1>9.2
RVOT DIAMETER    
Above aortic valve (RVOT 1), cm2.5–2.93.0–3.23.3–3.5>3.6
Above pulmonic valve (RVOT 2), cm1.7–2.32.4–2.72.8–3.1>3.2
PA DIAMETER    
Below pulmonic valve (PA 1), cm1.5–2.12.2–2.52.6–2.9>3.0
RV SIZE AND FUNCTION (MEASURED IN A4C)    
RV diastolic area, cm211–2829–3233–37>38
RV systolic area, cm27.5–1617–1920–22>23
RV fractional area change, %32–6025–3118–24<17

Reference values for atrial size and volume

 Women   Men   
 Normal rangeMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormalNormal rangeMildly abnormalModerately abnormalSeverely abnormal
ATRIAL DIMENSIONS        
LA diameter, cm2.7–3.83.9–4.24.3–4.6>4.73.0–4.04.1–4.64.7–5.2>5.2
LA diameter/BSA, cm/m21.5–2.32.4–2.62.7–2.9>3.01.5–2.32.4–2.62.7–2.9>3.0
RA minor-axis dimension, cm2.9–4.54.6–4.95.0–5.4>5.52.9–4.54.6–4.95.0–5.4>5.5
RA minor-axis dimension/BSA, cm/m21.7–2.52.6–2.82.9–3.1>3.21.7–2.52.6–2.82.9–3.1>3.2
ATRIAL AREA        
LA area, cm2<2020–3030–40>40<2020–3030–40>40
ATRIAL VOLUMES        
LA volume, mL22–5253–6263–72>7318–5859–6869–78>79
LA volume/BSA, mL/m222 ± 629–3334–39>4022 ± 629–3334–39>40

​BSA, Body surface area; LA, left atrial; RA, right atrial.

CriteriaNormal, youngNormal, adultAbnormal relaxation (grade 1 dysfunction)Pseudonormal (grade 2 dysfunction)Reversible restrictive filling (grade 3 dysfunction)Irreversible restrictive filling (grade 4 dysfunction)
E/A-ratio1–21–2<11–1.5 (not reversed with Valsalva maneuver)>1.51.5–2.0 (not reversed with Valsalva maneuver)
Deceleration time (DT), ms<240150–240≥240150–200<150<150
IVRT (ms)70–9070–90>90<90<70<70
S/D-ratio<1≥1≥1<1<1<1
ARdur – Adur (ms)≥30≤0≤0 or ≥30≥30≥30≥30
AR speed (cm/s)<35<35<35≥35≥35≥35
e’ speed (cm/s)>10>8<8<8<8<8

Mitral valve regurgitation

Primary parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Vena contracta (cm)< 0,30,3-0,69> 0,69
EROA (cm²)< 0,200,20-0,39> 0,39
Jet size< 4cm² or < 20% of atrial size4-10 cm² or 20-40% of atrial size> 10 cm² or > 40% of atrial size
Jet orientationcentralvariableexcentric
Pulmonary vein flowS-dominantreduced S-wavesystolic flow reversal,

Qualitative parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Mitral valve apparatusnormal or mildly abnormaloften abnormalabnormal, possibly flail
CW-profile mitral regurgitationweakvariabledense
Shape CW-profile mitral regurgitationparabolicvariableearly peak, triangular
Size left atriumnormalnormal or dilateddilated
Size left ventriclenormalnormal or dilateddilated

Additional PISA-parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Regurgitation volume (ml/beat)< 3030-59> 59
Regurgitation volume = EROA x TVI   
Regurgitation fraction (%)< 3030-49> 49

Miscellaneous parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
PW-Doppler mitral valveA dominantvariablehigh E values

​References

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3.

2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link​

Mitral valve stenosis

Primary parameters

 Mild stenosisModerate stenosisSevere stenosis
Valve area> 1,5 cm²1,5 – 1,0 cm²< 1,0 cm²
Mean gradient< 5 mmHg5-10 mmHg> 10 mmHg

Additional parameters

 Mild stenosisModerate stenosisSevere stenosis
Pulmonary artery pressure<3030-50>50

References

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303.

2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029.

3. Vahanian, Alec; Alfieri, Ottavio; Andreotti, Felicita; Antunes, Manuel J.; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Baumgartner, Helmut et al. (2012): Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012). In European heart journal 33 (19), pp. 2451–2496. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs109.

Pulmonary valve regurgitation

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Pulmonary valve morphologynormalnormal/abnormalabnormal
Density CW-Dopplerweak, slow decelerationvariabledense, steep deceleration, early termination of diastolic flow
Jet width colour Dopplersmall,, < 10 mm length, narrow originvariablelarge, wide origin
Ratio pulmonic to aortic flownormalvariablesignificantly increased

References

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3.

2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007.

3. Lancellotti, Patrizio; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hagendorff, Andreas; Moura, Luis; Popescu, Bogdan A.; Agricola, Eustachio et al. (2010): European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease). In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 11 (3), pp. 223–244. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jeq030.

Pulmonary valve stenosis

 Mild stenosisModerate stenosisSevere stenosis
Peak velocity (m/s)< 343528> 4
Peak gradient (mmHg)< 3636-64> 64

References

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303.

2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link

Tricuspid valve regurgitation

Primary parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
PISA radius< 0,60,6-0,9> 0,9
Vena contracta (cm)not defined< 0,7> 0,7
Liver vein flowS-dominantReduced S-wavesystolic flow reversal, jet reaching liver veins

Additional quantitative parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Jet size< 5cm²5-10 cm²> 10 cm²
size vena cava inferior< 2,1 cm and compressiblein between> 2,1 cm, almost not compressible

Additional qualitative parameters

 Mild regurgiationModerate regurgitationSevere regurgitation
Coaptation defectmildmoderatesevere
Size right ventriclenormalnormal or enlargedenlarged
Size right atriumnormalnormal or enlargedenlarged
CW-profile tricuspid regurgitationweakvariabledense
Shape CW-profile tricuspid regurgitationparabolicvariableearly peak, triangular

References

1. Zoghbi, William A.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A.; Kraft, Carol D.; Levine, Robert A. et al. (2003): Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16 (7), pp. 777–802. DOI: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00335-3.

2. Zoghbi, William A.; Adams, David; Bonow, Robert O.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Foster, Elyse; Grayburn, Paul A. et al. (2017): Recommendations for Noninvasive Evaluation of Native Valvular Regurgitation. A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Developed in Collaboration with the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 30 (4), pp. 303–371. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2017.01.007. –>Pubmed-Link

Tricuspid valve stenosis

Mean pressure gradient≥ 5 mmHg
Valve area according to the continuity equation (cm²)≤ 1 cm²
ZTime-velocity-integral of the tricuspid inflow (cm)> 60 cm
Pressure half time (T ½,ms)≥ 190 ms
Right atriumSeverly enlarged
Vena cava inferiorenlarged

References

1. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology 10 (1), pp. 1–25. DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen303.

2. Baumgartner, Helmut; Hung, Judy; Bermejo, Javier; Chambers, John B.; Evangelista, Arturo; Griffin, Brian P. et al. (2009): Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. In Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 22 (1), 1-23; quiz 101-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2008.11.029. –>Pubmed-Link

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