Section 2: Arrhythmias

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Part 1: Basic Arrhythmology

1. Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Learn about the three mechanisms causing cardiac arrhythmias: re-entry (reentry), increased automaticity and triggered activity.

2. Aberrant Ventricular Conduction (aberrancy)

Aberrant ventricular conduction is not an arrhythmia per se but may frequently mimic arrhythmias.

3. Premature Atrial Beats/Contractions

Learn how to diagnose premature atrial beats (or atrial extrasystoles, premature atrial contractions) and differentiate them from other diagnoses.

4. Premature Ventricular Beats/Contractions

Learn how to recognize premature ventricular beats (or ventricular extrasystoles, premature ventricular contractions) and differentiate them from other diagnoses.

5. Sinus Rhythm

Learn the ECG criteria, physiology and characteristics of sinus rhythm, which is the normal rhythm of the heart.

6. Sinus Arrhythmia (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia)

Learn ECG characteristics and implications of sinus arrhythmia in various patient populations.

Part 2: Bradyarrhythmia (bradycardia)

Note that management (treatment) of bradycardia is discussed in the final chapter (Sinus Node Dysfunction & Sick Sinus Syndrome).

7. Sinus Bradycardia

Learn about causes and management of sinus bradycardia.

8. Chronotropic Incompetence

Chronotropic incompetence is the inability to increase the heart rate adequately, learn about it in this chapter.

9. Sinoatrial Arrest, Sinus Inhibition, Sinoatrial Pause

Temporary malfunction in the sinoatrial node may lead to these two conditions which must be diagnosed whenever present.

10. Sinoatrial Block (SA Block)

Learn about SA blocks and how to diagnose and manage them.

11. Sinus Node Dysfunction (SND) & Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS)

SND and SSS are common clinical conditions. In this chapter you will learn about these conditions and you will also learn how to manage bradycardias regardless of the underlying cause.

Part 3: Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias (tachycardia)

12. Sinus Tachycardia, Inapproproate Sinus Tachycardia, Sinoatrial Re-entry Tachycardia & High Resting Heart Rate

These are some of the most common and often puzzling conditions in clinical practice. Learn all about them in this chapter.

13. Atrial Fibrillation

Learn classification, causes, diagnostic criteria and management of atrial fibrillation, which is the most common clinically significant tachyarrhythmia.

14. Atrial Flutter

Learn classification, causes, diagnostic criteria and management of atrial flutter.

15. Atrial Tachycardia, Atrial Rhythm and Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia

There are three types of atrial rhythms: ectopica atrial tachycardia, atrial rhythm and multifocal atrial tachycardia. Learn about them in this chapter.

16. Atrioventricular Node Re-entry Tachycardia (AVNRT)

AVNRT is both common and difficult to recognize, which is why this chapter provides an in-depth discussion on causes, diagnosis, ECG manifestation and management.

17. Pre-excitation, Atrioventricular Re-entry Tachycardia (AVRT) & Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

The prevalence of pre-excitation is 1 per 1000 individuals and the condition may cause frequent arrhythmias. Learn all about pre-excitation and WPW syndrome in this chapter.

18. Junctional Rhythm & Junctional Tachycardia

The atrioventricular (AV) node may also participate in arrhythmias, which is discussed in this chapter.

Part 4: Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias (tachycardia)

19. Ventricular Rhythm & Accelerated (Idioventricular) Rhythm

Occasionally rhythms may arise in the ventricular myocardium. Slower ventricular rhythms are either simply ventricular rhythm or accelerated (idioventricular) rhythm, both of which are discussed in this chapter.

20. Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)

The most common of the potentially fatal arrhythmias. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) must be recognized on the ECG and management must be evidence based in order to save lives.

21. Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)

LQTS manifests with an abnormally long QT interval and it may precipitate lethal arrhythmias. Learn all about LQTS in this chapter.

22. Ventricular fibrillation (VF)

Ventricular fibrillation is discussed in this chapter.

23. Pacemaker Mediated Tachycardia (PMT)

Cardiac devices, particularly pacemakers, may also cause arrhythmias. It is important to be able to differentiate PMT from true ventricular tachycardia and other tachyarrhythmias.

Part 5: Clinical Management of Tachyarrhythmias (tachycardia)

24. Management and Diagnosis of Supraventricular and Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia

Diagnosing and managing various tachyarrhythmias may be difficult. This chapter provides an in-depth guide to clinical reasoning, differential diagnostics and management of tachyarrhtyhmias (tachycardias). General aspects as well as details on narrow complex tachycardia (NCT) and wide complex tachycardia (WCT) are covered.

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